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  Story of discovery of the Nag Hammadi manuscripts and the crucifixion of Jesus قصة اكتشاف مخطوطات نجع حمادي، وصلب المسيح

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نقاط : 34858
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

مُساهمةموضوع: Story of discovery of the Nag Hammadi manuscripts and the crucifixion of Jesus قصة اكتشاف مخطوطات نجع حمادي، وصلب المسيح    الإثنين أكتوبر 17, 2011 5:59 am




Story of discovery of the Nag Hammadi manuscripts and the crucifixion of Jesus
قصة اكتشاف مخطوطات نجع حمادي، وصلب المسيح




(Nag Hammadi library)


Story of discovery of the Nag Hammadi manuscripts and the crucifixion of Jesus peace be upon him --------------------------------------------- Image Nag Hammadi library - - - By Ahmed Osman - - - In 1945 and near the village of Nag Hammadi (Nag Hammâdi) (a village in Qena, Upper Egypt), Mohamed Al-Samman village discovered who was looking for fertilizer to his field ceramic jar. So, a broken jar found ancient manuscripts are known later manuscripts Nag Hammadi (Nag Hammadi library). The manuscripts containing the Gospels and the Gnostic writings. And several years ago after finding Mohamed Al-Samman village folders Nag Hammadi, before men knew nothing about Egyptian antiquities. Has concealed the manuscript is completely government authorities as soon as his awareness of the value of archaeological sites, the desire to sell in the market and to obtain financial gain for them. When put the folders in the market Alontekp in Cairo, he heard men's Antiquities Authority - which had been subordinated to the Ministry of Education at that time - the subject and they bought the first volume appeared in the market and kept it in the Coptic Museum, but they are up to that time did not realize the real value of these folders, given the lack of specialists to verify their origin. Had the opportunity when he came to Egypt is one Egyptologists specialists in Coptic Studies, the French went to visit Jane Doris Coptic Museum, the museum director Vanthz Togo Mina this opportunity to brief him on the folder in his possession for examination. And zeal Mina told him when the French scientist, the discovery of this type of folders will lead to change all that is known about the origin of the movement of Christianity. He insisted Togo Mina would get the authorities of the effects of traders, for all found folders and not allow any of them to leave the country, who then informed his superiors until he broke the news to the Minister of Education, which decided to buy any folder which is found in favor of the Coptic Museum. As the minister could not measure the amount requested by the traders, the men and the confiscation of the effects found in possession of the vendor that has reached the number in the end to 13 volumes containing 52 text. The effects of men save the folders that are in possession of the Coptic Museum, but traders were able to smuggle a large part of Volume No. 13 - which includes five texts - outside the country, and posted it for sale in the United States of America. When he learned Jmsepel Giles, a professor of history of religions at the University of Ootric Dutch word order for sale, persuaded Gustav Jung Institute in Zurich - a charity on behalf of the famous psychologist who was a colleague of Sigmund Freud - have been buying parts for sale. When informed of the texts that have been purchased, found Iksepel of parts missing, he traveled to Cairo to look for it. Upon arrival in Cairo, went to The Coptic Museum, and obtained photographs of the rest of the folders that are there, and returned to the hotel trying to decode the ancient Coptic language, and identify the contents of the images. It was a surprise when the Dutch researcher found the beginning of the text, which stated as follows: "These are the words spoken by Jesus secret the neighborhood, and without Jodas Didymus Thomas." A picture of the villager Mohammad Samman discovered Nag Hammadi library He had been found half a century before that - in Egypt as well - on a piece of papyrus containing a fragment of the Gospel of Thomas, written in Greek, and this is the first time is where to find the whole book. Also make sure Kisepel when reviewing images of the rest of the folders it contains 52 text are all dated to the first centuries of the history of AD, including the Gospels were not known before, such as the Gospel of Thomas - Ooththomps in ancient Egyptian - and the Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of truth and the Gospel of the Egyptians, as well as some Writings attributed to the Apostles, such as the Book of James - carried away in the Egyptian - and the vision of Paul and the letter of Peter to Philip. And there is no disagreement among researchers about the time in which they are to hide these folders, during the second half of the fourth century AD. It is this history confirms the literature found on the papyrus used in the lining leather bindings of the volumes belong to that period. This is the period during which the Church of Rome - on the impact of the Empire to become the new religion - burning all the scripts that contain information contrary to the teachings, a period when the burning of the Library of Alexandria - including the Institute for Christian theology - which existed in the Temple of the Serapeum. And sources say that St. Mark Coptic - who has written the Bible II of the New Testament - came to Alexandria in the middle of the first century AD, and lived by until he died in 74 and was buried in the city. The library of Alexandria and became a main center of Christian thought during the first and second centuries AD. There are many historical sources that refer to the transformation of the Library of Alexandria at the beginning of the Christian era - along with Greek Studies - a center for the study of Christian philosophy and theology in that era. However, the teachings of the Church of Egypt was not in accordance with the teachings of the Church of Rome in several points, but it can be argued that there was a fight over ideology between Rome and Alexandria for the leadership of the Christian world, did not resolve this conflict in favor of Rome only because of the political control of the Romanian most countries of the ancient civilizations. Omar Hammadi manuscripts succeeded: A map showing the place of discovery of manuscripts in the village of Nag Hammadi in the province of Qena, Arab Republic of Egypt However, unlike severe erupted between researchers determine the time at which it was original copies of the texts found at Nag Hammadi library. Based on some of them to what the father Iiranjos bishop of Lyon, in his book in 180, that the groups heretical - and this is the name that parents were Europeans Italegouna movements that came out of Egypt - has many of the Gospels, which had spread at that time most of the countries Romanian Empire, to determine the earlier date of the book in 180 limited enough to allow the emergence and spread of these Gospels. However, another group of men of Biblical Studies refused to accept this early date to the writings of Nag Hammadi, if this misguided heretical writings - as decided by the Romanian Church - it must have appeared after a sufficient period of emergence of other writings considered by the nature of Orthodox Roma straight. Since the prevailing view now is that the New Testament Gospels emerged between 75 and mid-second century AD, these researchers are going to define later - during the third century AD - the emergence of the writings of the Nag Hammadi Coptic. Until that date, the time set for the emergence of late as well as the Coptic writing itself. The idea prevalent among Western scholars is that - despite the arrival of Christian beliefs, to Egypt during the first century AD - but that the Egyptians themselves did not convert to Christianity before the third century. They are determined to Christian communities that emerged in Egypt during the first century, were either of the Jews living in Egypt or Greece. And this can not be the emergence of Christian writings refer to this early history of the Coptic language, which is to write ordinary Egyptians. And for this - and without objective evidence - the researchers determined the date the emergence of Western writing Coptic during the third century AD, ie, at the same time specified by them to convert to the Egyptians to Christianity. We will return to discuss this subject later to try to identify the true history of the emergence of Coptic writing, but we are here just to clarify the justifications relied upon by the researchers to determine the date for the late appearance of the original writings of the Nag Hammadi volumes. However, these researchers have faced a real problem when you try to determine the date of the most important texts found at Nag Hammadi, namely, the Gospel of Thomas. And is this different from the other Gospels, the Gospel known in that it does not contain a story or a version of the events, but consists of 114 words attributed to Jesus Christ. It is also difficult to consider this gospel Hrtokie because it contains a large number of words of Christ that appeared in the New Testament Gospels, as well as the statements did not show it. The words of Jesus here are initially not included in the narrative nonfiction, suggesting that they are older than any of the other Gospels. This has suggested a researcher Dutch Kisepel year 140 to the appearance of the original text of the Gospel of Thomas, the Helmut Kuester - Professor of Christian history at Harvard University and the most important researcher presses in this topic - surprised everyone to return the original Gospel of Thomas to the middle of the first century AD, ie up to precede the appearance of any of the writings of Covenant iron, including the letters of Paul and Acts of the Apostles. When I moved management of the Coptic Museum to Dr. Bahor Labib in 1952, was not keen to accelerate the deployment of the texts of Nag Hammadi, and in recognition of the famous large grew and grew any researcher who publishes texts of Coptic, decided not to allow one to do this work without permission from him, which caused delays dissemination of the contents of the Nag Hammadi Library for many years. However, the UNESCO Commission in 1961 called for the deployment of all folders Coptic, and proposed the formation of the World Commission meets in Cairo to oversee this work. The Committee decided to be the first step in the dissemination of texts is to organize the process photographed, so that the images are ready for any researcher wants to study. Has already begun the process of filming, which lasted years, in turn, published a picture texts in ten volumes between 1972 and 1977. Then the professor James Rrbinson - Director of Institute for the Study of Christian history, the composition of the international committee to study and translation of the Coptic Nag Hammadi library, which has increased interest in Christian history students to learn the Coptic language, especially in the Harvard University of America. And were not Nag Hammadi library is the first found in Egypt from ancient Christian writings, written in Coptic. Before the end of the eighteenth century, bought the tourists Scottish manuscripts Copts in the city of Luxor, as there is a full amateur antiques manuscripts Copts, with one of vendors of old books in London, shows the translation of these writings to contain a dialogue between Jesus Christ and a group of his disciples, including some women. And then found one Egyptologists German - before the end of the last century - a manuscript, a Copt is displayed in the market, antiques, Cairo, include so-called Gospel of Mary Magdalene, along with other texts, and copies have been found within the Nag Hammadi library after that, then found by archaeologists during this century - At various places in Egypt - on thousands of papyri containing the writings of ancient Christian, though most bloggers Greek. One of the pages a picture of the Nag Hammadi manuscripts There is no doubt that the oldest Christian writings that are now in the world. Including copies of the New Testament, all found in the land of Egypt, and there is no single text that belongs to the first three centuries AD, was found outside of Egypt. Consistent of the four Gospels in the New Testament that Jesus died on the Cross, by order of the Roman governor of Palestine, "Bonteas Pilate" in the thirties the first century AD. However, this event is not only absent from the Gospels of the Nag Hammadi Coptic, but some of them explicitly mentions this story and making fun of Qailleha. No mention of the Roman governor Pilate in the Gospels Coptic which do not contain the story of the Romanian steel. According to the Gospel of Peter on the lips of Peter: "I saw him appear as if they were holding him. And I said: What's this I see you, sir? Is it you really take? .. Or are they knocking. My blood and in another's hands? ... :..... Savior said to me from entering the nails his hands and feet is the alternative .... They stayed put in the likeness of shame. I look at him. and look at me. " As stated in the book "Seth largest" on the lips of Christ, saying: "It was someone else ... that is the bitterness and drinking vinegar, I was not ... that was the last to carry the cross on his shoulders, the last is the one who put the crown of thorns on his head. And I was beaming in the Ela ... laugh for their ignorance." According to the book "the work of John" which was found Naga Hammadi also, in the words of Christ as saying: "I did not happen to me anything what they say about me." This is a confirmation of what was brought by the Holy Quran about Jesus son of Mary: (and saying We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah but they killed him and crucified him, but they almost but those who differed concerning it, is in doubt of it as they have no knowledge only follow conjecture, and him for sure) [women : 157]. And with that the cross is a symbol of Christ in the Gospels, Coptic, but it is not a sign of how he died, but it is a symbol of the living Christ - his spirit - which did not die. Therefore, we find that the cross which found a decree on the covers of the Nag Hammadi volumes not Cross Roman, but is "Ankh" the key to life when the ancient Egyptians. Certainly, the Cross-Masri is that has prevailed among the first Christian communities, not only in Egypt, but in all countries of the Empire of Romania. And goes to the Coptic Museum in Cairo will find that the key to life is the only cross that symbolizes the resurrection of Christ during the first three centuries AD. Christian churches did not use the Roman Cross only since the second half of the fourth century, then became the Church of Rome in control of the Christian movement, however, that the cross did not become acceptable to the public only after the Christian Church has been found in the Romanian city of Jerusalem on what was said to Cross Wood, who died By Jesus. Then twist it after that - during the fifth century - when the church developed ROMANIAN pictures of the body of Christ on a wooden cross. A picture of the British politician Enoch Powell, author of the evolution of the Bible The Evolution of the Gospel And raised the book (the evolution of the Gospels The Evolution of the Gospel) which was released recently, to the British politician (Enoch Powell) sensation when it announced the researcher that the story of Christ into the Romans were not exist in the original text of the Gospels. As his first re-translation of the Gospel of Matthew from the Greek language. It is clear that there are duplicate parts and received in this gospel, which suggests that re-written at a later stage. Refined and the most important facts contained in the latter part of the Bible, which relates to the trial and crucifixion of Christ. As noted by the writer of this trial, after the end before the high priest, back Vttakerr again - the same words - but with one difference that the second trial - unlike the first trial - to execution on death by crucifixion - The researcher concluded that the use of terms used the same in the trial first - to formulate a story the second trial, despite the changed circumstances, suggesting repetitive deliberate and not a reference to a new event, and expressed the author believed that the natural result of the trial speaker before the priests - in the event of a conviction - were not the steel, but stoned. And Powell said that the story of the crucifixion of Christ received in the rest of the Gospels, but came about through the transfer and the subsequent narrators found in Matthew's Gospel, after the amendment had been introduced it, but this story is contained in another source. In his view, the Gospel of Matthew is not only the first but the Gospels and the sole source as well. The problem facing researchers is that the four Gospels are the only source of the story of the heart of the Romans of Jesus Christ, even if proved that the Gospels this novel was itself a later addition and does not represent a historic event, this will lead to A picture of the evolution of the Bible book cover The Evolution of the Gospel Need to reconsider the acceptance of what in the story as the Gospels is not historical truth of events. And with that we are now approaching the end of the second millennium of history AD, but that hardly have any historical information confirmed the life of Christ himself. The belief was in the past is that the Gospel writers recorded news and facts they themselves witnessed it, but it now appears the incorrectness of this belief. Not written first Gospels that we have now but after nearly half a century on the events that talk about it, and then introduced by the amendments subsequently during the following twenty years. And the story as contained in the Gospels in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem during the reign of King Herod, who ruled Palestine forty years until his death in the fourth year of the date of the previous century. Mary and her son fled to Egypt after he was born for fear of oppression by the king, who knew of the prophecies about the place and time of the birth of Christ, who will demand the throne of David. Mother and her child did not return from Egypt to Palestine only after the death of Herod, the child went to live in the town of Nazareth in Galilee in northern Palestine. And the novel says that after the boy grew up and became a man in his thirties, he went to the Jordan Valley where he met John the Baptist, who baptized with water in the middle of river. After this observed i'tikaaf Jesus alone for forty days fasting in the desert and came into conflict with the devil who tried to lure by giving the kingdoms of the world, and returned Christ - after the failure of the devil in his mission - to Galilee, to choose his apostles twelve, and start calling, raising hatred of priests, the Sadducees Jews the Pharisees and rabbis it. And increased the anger of the priests of Jesus - the Gospels, according to the novel - when he went to the city of Jerusalem before the Feast of Passover, and entered the temple and became a promise in his message. They reasoned it and sent guards to arrest him - with the assistance of Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed - and was resting with his disciples at the Mount of Olives north of the city. And continued the investigation and trial before the priests, led by "Caiaphas," the high priest throughout the night. After the hearing in the morning, he took the priests of Christ to Pilate, the Roman governor of Palestine, which re-trial "asked the governor saying, You are King of the Jews, Jesus said to him you say, while the chief priests and elders, he answered he does not have something, he said Pilate, but hear how witness you, he answered him not a single word to the governor wondered exceedingly. " And tried to Pilate, according to a novel, released on the occasion of Jesus Easter Holiday could not find a justification for punishment, but the chief priests incited the crowd to claim the Messiah was crucified were subject to the governor to theirs. The soldiers took him "As they came to a position said to him ... gave him Jgatp etc. mixed with bitterness to drink and what they crucified him they parted his garments ... from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour ... Jesus cried with a loud voice and peace of spirit." And end with the Bible story, the resurrection of Christ from the dead on the third day, his body disappeared from the cemetery, which put it out, and then appeared to his disciples and encouraging them to spread Christian teachings among nations. This is the story according to what appeared in the four Gospels in the New Testament, but the strange thing is the lack of any reference or even a simple snapshot of these events in the contemporary historical sources for that period, whether the sources Romanian or Greek or Jewish. The only source which was brought by said Jesus Christ was the writings of Jewish historian Josephus, but the researchers found since the sixteenth century that this story - which does not exceed a few lines - are added later to the book was not part of the first versions of it, there is no doubt that some of the scribes Christians added at a later stage. For this, the result reached by the Powell finally that the original version of the Gospel of Matthew had no mention of the crucifixion of Christ, can no longer be ignored, and he felt that the Gospel of Matthew is not a historical account of the life of Christ, but is in fact controversial theological presented in a manner symbol and metaphor. Therefore determine the time of the birth of Christ era of King Herod is not a historically specific, because the selection in history - he says - often cite the day and the year was the incident, and be at the launch. The term "in the days of King Herod," It seems like the beginning of the story and not a date for the incident. And in his view, the issue is not about the Christian faith itself, but the pretext of legitimacy based upon the Romanian Church in their power. The Pope of the church - it represents the high priest - derives its authority from a representative of Christ on this earth. This representation - also insists the Church - came on the authority took him through Christ personally. They say that Jesus Christ after his resurrection on the third day I give a mandate to disciple Peter's successor to lead Christians. And that Peter traveled before his death Egyptian Papyrus Decree cross "Ankh": the key to life when the ancient Egyptians, where their memorable Christians of Egypt and spread the idea among Christians in the world


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Story of discovery of the Nag Hammadi manuscripts and the crucifixion of Jesus قصة اكتشاف مخطوطات نجع حمادي، وصلب المسيح
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